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Preservation Society of Charleston to Honor African American Craftsmen and Preservationists

Contact: Aurora Harris, Community Outreach Manager|aharris@preservationsociety.org |843.722.4630

Thomas M. Pinckney Alliance Reception

March 13, 2013
Preservation Society of Charleston Logo

Charleston, SC– The Preservation Society of Charleston will honor African American craftsmen and preservationist with a reception to follow on Friday April 12th from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. at 91 Spring Street Charleston, SC. The reception is hosted by the Thomas M. Pinckney Alliance of the Preservation Society of Charleston. This event is held in honor of Thomas Mayhem Pinckney, the artisan who helped the Society founder Susan Pringle Frost in much of her early preservation work.

The purpose of the Thomas Mayhem Pinckney Alliance is to support the Preservation Society of Charleston in identifying and preserving historic African American “built environments” in the Lowcountry. This includes those sites built by, occupied by and utilized for activities significant to the African American experience. The Thomas Mayhem Pinckney Committee also advocates for the expanded participation of African Americans in the Preservation Society’s activities and efforts.

This event is made possible by the Alliance and generous sponsors Julia-Ellen Craft Davis and Vicki Davis Williams, the granddaughters of Herbert A. DeCosta, Sr. and Julia Ellen Craft DeCosta, founders of H. A. DeCosta Company, and Gullah Tours. Catering is done by Joe’s Catering by Buckshot's Restaurant. Music performed by Oscar Rivers, Jazz Pianist.

Please RSVP by Thursday April 4th with Aurora Harris, Community Outreach Manager, at (843) 722-4630 or email aharris@preservationsociety.org.The purchase of a one year membership into the Preservation Society is suggested.

For more information please contact Aurora Harris, Community Outreach Manager, at (843) 722-4630 aharris@preservationsociety.org or visit their website at www.preservationsociety.org.

About the Preservation Society of Charleston

Founded in 1920, the Preservation Society of Charleston is the oldest community-based membership historic preservation organization in the United States of America. Their mission is to inspire the involvement of all who dwell in the Lowcountry to honor and respect our material and cultural heritage. Membership in the Preservation Society is open to everyone.

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Teaching Moments: Slave Dwelling Project Includes Local Youths in Stay at Hopsewee Plantation

Gloria Bar Ford, Sophia Jackson, Zenobia Washington
Hearth in Slave Cabin, Hopsewee Plantation
Hearth Lit
Hopsewee Plantation House
Hopsewee Plantation Slave Cabin
Reajean Beatty Welcomes Guests at Hopsewee Plantation
Sophia Jackson Performs Stories from the Big Book of Gullah
Sophia Jackson
Storyteller Gloria Bar Ford
Storytellers Gloria Bar Ford, Sophia Jackson, Zenobia Washington
Young Men from AME Church Group Sons of Allen
Young Men from Sons of Allen, Morning After Hopsewee Stay
The Next Day ~ Ramona La Roche, Morning After Hopsewee Stay
The Next Day ~ Ramona La Roche Greets the Morning
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#FFCC00fadetrue

The first stay for the Slave Dwelling Project in 2013 was a repeat stay at Hopsewee Plantation on Friday, March 1.

One constant in both stays would be an event planned around dinner. Raejean and staff again showcased their zeal, ability and love of cooking for on the menu was shrimp and grits; chicken gumbo; field peas; okra and tomatoes; macaroni and cheese; pineapple casserole; pimento cheese biscuits and bread pudding.

The room was full to capacity and included guests from as far away as Chicago, Illinois and Mystic Sea Port, Connecticut who came specifically because of the program that owners Frank and Raejean planned. During dinner, I had the opportunity to address the guests on the subject of the Slave Dwelling Project.

Given only ten minutes to present, I let the audience decide which of the twelve states of which I had spent a night in a former slave dwelling that I would talk about. Their choices were Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia. Having the audience respond to where they were from as I went alphabetically through the list, only Louisiana, Missouri and North Carolina were excluded from the presentation, proving the geographic diversity of the audience.

Gloria Bar Ford, Sophia Jackson, Zenobia Washington

The highlight of the evening was a presentation titled “Stories from the Big Book of Gullah”. Story tellers Zenobia Washington and Sophia Jackson presented original stories based on Gullah traditions. Artist Zenobia Washington was raised in the port city of Georgetown, SC and influenced by the Gullah culture.

Many know Zenobia through her art of doll making, Zenobia is the director of Frameworks, a non-profit organization working with the youth of Georgetown in story telling and theater arts. Sophia Jackson is a native of Georgetown, SC and a longtime lover and pursuer of the arts. Having graduated from the University of South Carolina with a degree in film making and African American studies, she has recently joined efforts with Frameworks as a vehicle for sharing her expertise and artistic views. Also joining the cast was Gloria Bar Ford. Interspersed with poetry, storytelling and singing, the presentation was excellent and shows great potential for future collaboration.

Young Men from AME Church Group Sons of Allen

One other very important element of the stay was that owners Frank and Raejean agreed that Zenobia could arrange for some youth and their chaperones to spend the night in the slave cabin with me. Seven young men ages 14 – 16 associated with the group Sons of Allen were chosen. Throughout the thirty eight stays, I have had many people share the experience of sleeping in the slave dwellings with me. This one, I would anticipate the most because of the potential to influence youth, more specifically, young African American males. The opportunity to educate was fully embraced. Dropped off by their parents, all of the young men had arrived at or before the appointed time of 6:00 pm. I, arriving at 5:30 pm, had the opportunity to meet some of the parents of the young men. All of the young men seemed ready for what they had volunteered to do. Their actions through dinner and the presentations were more than respectable.

Hopsewee Slave Cabin

Upon entering the cabin to prepare my spot for sleeping, I was not surprised that all seven young men chose the same side of the cabin. I could not let them just drift off to sleep without first taking advantage of this teachable moment.

Although they attended the dinner presentation, I wanted to give them more details about what our ancestors endured for us to have the liberties that we enjoy today. I asked fellow Civil War reenactors Terry James who would be sleeping in a slave cabin for the 12th time and Ramona La Roche who would be staying for the first time to join me in communicating with the young men. Ramona queried the young men about their plans for the future.

I could not help but recall a situation that Terry James and I experienced when we slept in the other slave cabin on the property. Terry told them that when he closed the door on the cabin he looked up and noticed that a snake had shed its skin right above the door. He went on to say that we both had to convince ourselves that because the shed skin was dry, the event took placed weeks maybe months before we got there and the snake was long gone. My role in this teachable moment was minimized when Terry James led the discussion drawing on his experience of currently raising two teen age boys and his experience of sleeping in 11 cabins to date. When prompted by Ramona, I only had to chime in to keep the conversation in an historical context. This involved telling the group about the movement westward of this young nation and how slavery factored into that movement.

As if planned, our teachable moment was pleasantly interrupted by owners Frank and Raejean, Frank went to the side of the chaperones and Raejean came to the side where Ramona, Terry and I were with the seven young men. Hoping that the young men were taking notes for an upcoming essay that they had to write about the stay in a slave cabin, I queried Raejean as if the information that she was about to give me, I would be hearing for the first time. She stated that she tries to avoid giving guided tours of the house because it usually becomes a tour about them and not the property and its past inhabitants. She leaves the job of the house tours to the hired staff. As she explained the history of Hopsewee, I could not help but to latch on to what she said about its connection to the invention of the water and steamed powered rice mill. John Hume Lucas who owned the plantation from 1844 – 1853 was a successful rice grower and engineer and a relative of Jonathan Lucas, Jr. and Jonathan Lucas Sr. Both Lucas’ Jr. and Sr. were responsible for inventing, building and perfecting rice mills. I could not help but to interrupt her presentation to make connection to Eli Whitney and his invention of the cotton gin. Both inventions increased the need for more slaves.

Hearth Lit

When Raejean and Frank left we became more grateful that the fireplaces in the cabin worked. In anticipation of a cold night, Raejean and Frank lit a fire in both fireplaces and provided enough wood to last throughout the night. The fire was cozy but we learned quickly that the windows on the cabin had to be slightly open to let out some of the smoke that would accumulate inside. After our session with the young men, all of the adults gathered on the other side of the cabin and quickly started to talk about subjects that mattered to adults. I became more acquainted with the group Sons of Allen. These men were responsible for assembling the group of young men who were staying the night. Information taken directly from their website describes the group as follows: “In 1984, the African Methodist Episcopal Church created the Sons of Allen Men’s Fellowship to foster closer relationships between men of the church, to equip men of the church for meaningful service, to reach unchurched men, and to present positive role models for our youth. The Sons of Allen has grown into an important connectional movement over the past twenty-plus years and the Fellowship is becoming a true connectional ministry. The challenges and disturbing realities facing African American men call for a response from the church.”

As we all claimed our spots on the floor we realized the twelve of us sleeping in the cabin that night would be using up all of the available floor space. I am certain that if the artifacts that were in the cabin were removed, we could have squeezed in even more people and that was likely the way that it would have been during the time of slavery. Once again, in preparation for his night sleep, Terry James attached the slave shackles to his wrist. As I drifted off to sleep, the young men were still talking among themselves. As we slept through the night, one of the chaperones would occasionally get up and put another log on the fire. On one occasion I awoke to a blazing fire in the fireplace and the sound of an owl in the background.

Ramona La Roche Greets the Morning

Unlike the first stay, sleeping in the cabin farthest away from Highway 17 made a big difference because the noise of the vehicles going across the bridge that spans the North Santee River was less prominent. Waking up the next morning, we all took advantage of the opportunity to take group photographs before we all went our separate ways. One by one the mothers of the young men came to pick them up. All of the mothers expressed great appreciation for the experience that we gave their kids. Raejean came and offered those of us remaining breakfast, some accepted but I had an appointment to keep with my young daughter.

Somewhere along this journey, I was told that what I was doing was art, it was Holly Springs, Mississippi to be exact. Until this stay at Hopsewee, I did not buy into that thought process. Did the dinner audience come for the food, did they come for the great performance of Stories from the Big Book of Gullah, or did they come to hear about the Slave Dwelling Project?

I cannot answer that question but I do know that all three elements worked well together. I also know that those three things combined did not excite me as much as spending the night in a slave cabin with seven young African American males.

Young Men from Sons of Allen, Morning After Hopsewee Stay

I just hope that the experience gave them an indication of what their ancestors endured so that they can enjoy the liberties that they have today. Owners Frank and Raejean and all others involved in organizing this stay should be proud and also know that you have now raised the bar for future stays in extant slave dwellings.

Although a repeat stay, many new and interesting twists were added that would add new standards to the project.

We Shall Over Come

By: Mr. Jordan Manigault
Property! The definition of property is someone’s possession. Do you know what it means for a person to be called someone’s property? When you are considered property you have no freedom, nor rights. If you don’t have either you have no say or control of your life. Slaves were considered possessions of their slave owners. During that time in history they were used as collateral. They could be sold and bought just like you buy items out of the store today. Therefore, as a result, their lives were affected by daily ridicule and unimaginable hardships. Slaves had no control over when they were going to be sold or traded. Families were torn apart in many ways. The husbands and sons watched their mothers, wives, and sister suffer abuse physically, sexually, and mentally and could do nothing about it. They were property of their slave owner. The lives of our ancestors as slaves was hard, but slavery still exist today.

In today’s society we enslave with modern day technology. Technology has taken over to the point where we are too dependent on it. We no longer know and understand what it is like to think for ourselves or to work with our hands because computer and technology does everything for us. Children no longer enjoy the outdoors. They don’t go outside to play because the majority of them have computers, video games or cell phones in which they spend all their time on these devices. We no longer share conversations with our family and friends or love ones. Again, we have been bought by the use of technology, every time a new device comes out we worry our parents to go out and purchase the newest device of today. We need to get back to some of our old habits.

In order to overcome being enslaved to technology we have to put those devices down and spend more time together as families; laughing and talking to one another, spending more time outdoors enjoying the gift GOD gave us to see, hear and smell his creation.

In order for this change to have a positive impact on today’s youth, everyone must get involved. Adults must realize that they should not only be concerned on the well being of their children, but ALL children as a whole. I believe that more outreach ministries could be established that will teach the youth self-respect and dignity. By instilling these values in the youth now the ending results will be remarkable.

Hopsewee

By Mr. Timothy Guiles

Hopsewee use to be a plantation with slaves. It was very cold and dark. There weren’t any beds to sleep on. If we were slaves, we would have to sleep on the floor but we had sleeping bags. It was fun because I had my friends there with me but if we were in slave times, it wouldn’t have been fun at all. The men that stayed with us told us the real story about slaves. Not the fake stuff we learn or learned about in history class. I was surprised at what they told me. I didn’t know that slave work up at 4:00 am to start their day of working. One of the men told us that when we are in class, think about what our ancestors went through in slavery and use that knowledge to improve our school and work manners.

We had a fireplace but that only kept us warm for so long. When I woke up in the middle of the night, it was super cold. Before we went to sleep in the slave house, we ate some food that they use to eat back in slave times. There was grits, mac and cheese, lemonade, tea, beans and more.

It’s not fair that we have more things than slaves had we still don’t appreciate what they did for us. We sit there; stand there with freedom because our ancestors did that for us. Martin Luther King, Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X helped Blacks earn freedom. If it weren’t for Abraham Lincoln, we would still be in those fields picking cotton and getting whipped for no reason.

I learned that if you don’t try, you won’t succeed. I also learned that you are going to have to do things that you don’t want to do in order to get where you want to go in life. It’s life as most say today. This world still isn’t equal enough. We still have murderers, racism, and rapist. We are going to have to learn how to get along with each other or this world is going to break apart.

Hopsewee was a very good experience for me to see how a slave would sleep at night. Well I enjoyed staying there. That will be a never forgetting moment.

Related Reading

Ramona La Roche, founder of Family TYES SC, has written about her experience of the overnight stay at Hopsewee. You can read her reflections here, on her blog Gullah Galz Ink.
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Interested In Preserving SC African American History and Culture? SC African American Heritage Commission Meets Thursday, March 14

The South Carolina African American Heritage Commission will hold it quarterly meeting on Thursday, March 14, 2013 at 6:30 p.m. at the South Carolina Archives and History Center, 8301 Parklane Road, Columbia.

Anyone interested in the preservation of African American history and culture is encouraged to attend.

Also, the Commission will hold its annual conference and awards presentation on Friday, March 15 beginning at 9:30 a.m.

For more information or to register for the conference call 843-917-3350 or visit www.scaaheritagefound.org.

For More Information, Please Contact:

Jannie Harriot

PO Box 2675

Hartsville, SC 29551

843-332-3589

Fax: 1-877-396-8314

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Freedmen's Bureau Record Breaks Through the 1870 Brick Wall for SC African American Genealogy

Record Connects Freedmen with Former Slaveholders

So rarely does a record from Reconstruction actually connect freed people to a former slaveholder. When we find records like this we are so excited.

We are very excited today, because we found another! This record is a part of the "Pre-Bureau" records for South Carolina.

Having taken Port Royal in 1861, Union forces were in lower South Carolina long before the Freedmen's Bureau was established. This record does not have a date but is interleaved with records made in 1865. It is reproduced on NARA Micropublication M869, Reel 38.

This record appears in rations requests and lists the names of elders with plantations and the names of former slaveholders. What a find!

Please click on the image below to view the record full-size. We hope you find an ancestor here. Happy Ancestor Hunting from the crew at Lowcountry Africana!

Record Connects Freedmen with Former Slaveholders

References Cited

United States, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1870 (NARA Micropublication M869), Reel 38.

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Joseph McGill and Company A, 54th Massachusetts Reenactment Regiment March in Inaugural Parade

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Inaugural Parade

Immersing myself in matters of history is second nature. More specifically, matters of African American history are on my short list of things I enjoy engaging in the most. To that end, I often have to be reminded that some of those matters of history of which I indulge are much bigger than me therefore they should be shared with an audience that wishes to know more about African American history. Through this blog you have been reading about The Slave Dwelling Project one of my deep indulgence into the extant places where enslaved African American lived, so deep that I have spent a night in thirty eight of these dwellings in twelve states since 2010. My publisher alerted me that I was about to engage in something rare that current and future followers of the blog might also be interested.

My other delve into African American history is that for over 20 years, I have been a Civil War reenactor. My Civil War reenacting group is Company I, 54th Massachusetts Reenactment Regiment. The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was one of the first African American Civil War units raised in the north and was portrayed in the academy award winning movie Glory in 1989. Being one of few African American Civil War reenactors in the United States, we represent approximately 200,000 African Americans that served the Union Army and Navy during the American Civil War. It was this affiliation that got me an invitation to march in the presidential inaugural parade that occurred on the Martin Luther King holiday on January 21, 2013. I would march with Company A, my fellow Civil War reenactors from Boston, Massachusetts.

The opportunity to march in the parade was not unique for I had done the very same thing four years prior with the same group. That experience taught me to prepare better for the occasion. My new brogans that I ordered for the occasion had gotten within a few miles from my home before UPS shipped them back to the sender because they could not figure out my address. The time that I received them only gave me a week to start the breaking in process which required me to wear them to work at Magnolia Plantation one day. I shined my brass and had the buttons sewn on my Civil War uniform and the pants hemmed accordingly. From the sporting goods store, I purchased hand and toe warmers. While packing for the trip, I discovered that my thermal underwear was insufficient for what I was about to experience therefore I had to purchase more. I recalled in 2009 standing in the below freezing cold for two hours waiting for the parade to begin so this time I would arm myself with snacks aplenty.

When I arrived in Washington, DC at the designated place to stay late in the evening of Saturday, January 19, the gentlemen from Boston were already there. Our host, Frank Smith, President of the African American Civil War Museum found a row house in a nice neighborhood that we could rent for the occasion. To my surprise, it would not be necessary for me to spread my sleeping bag on the floor because an army unit provided cots for all the men and women staying in the house. The only challenge would be everyone sharing the one rest room that was in the house. To that end, ten minute time limits had to be established and I chose the first slot at 4:00 am. Upon seeing Company A, we picked up where we left off because more than half of the guys participated in the inaugural parade four years earlier. That night some of us attempted to go to the world famous Ben’s Chili Bowl but were in for a rude awakening when we saw the line of people who got there before us.

Sunday, January 20 was packed with activities. An early morning muster gave us an indication of how we would function as a group. Our formation brought from the neighborhood various onlookers, picture takers and inquirers. Breakfast was prepared by an Elk’s lodge located two doors from the house where we stayed. We then proceeded in a loose formation to the African American Civil War Monument, 1925 Vermont Avenue NW, where we drilled and interacted with spectators.

The entrance to the African American Civil War Museum, 1925 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC

After the drill session, we went across the street to the Civil War Museum where we listened to a rousing and informative lecture about African Americans in the Civil War given by the museum curator Hari Jones. We were then shuttled over to 18th Street and Columbia Road to participate in the Slavery to Freedom in Adams Morgan Walking Tour. One stop on the tour was the site of John Little Manor House. Mr. Little was a cattle farmer who owned slaves. The tour concluded at the African American and Quaker cemeteries at Walker Pierce Park. Several African American Civil War soldiers and sailors are buried there.

Enjoying chicken wings and french fries at the Elks lodge while watching the New England Patriots versus Baltimore Ravens football game

That night we all gathered at the Elk’s Lodge to watch the New England Patriots versus the Baltimore Ravens. It was a precarious situation for me because being so close to Baltimore, Maryland, I was hanging with guys from Boston so I governed my actions accordingly. French fries, chicken wings and beer made the gathering more memorable. Needless to say, the result of the game was not favorable for my colleagues from Boston.

Monday, January 21, Dr. Martin Luther King’s holiday, the day of the inauguration, we all mustered outside at 5:00 am for inspection. While outside we discovered that a special guest would join us. Accompanying Company A in the parade would be the honorable Michael Crutcher who would portray Frederick Douglass. Douglass, who was instrumental in convincing Abraham Lincoln to recruit Black soldiers for the Union cause, had two sons , Charles and Lewis, who were members of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. The bus that would take us to the Pentagon for processing would not arrive for another hour or so which gave us some time to relax. On the bus ride that seemed to have taken almost an hour, we finally arrived at the Pentagon where again we had to wait. Having been preprocessed by providing our social security numbers and a photograph at least two weeks prior, the physical processing went a lot more smoothly than 4 years prior.

Muster outside of the row house on the morning of the inaugural parade

Knowing that our functional Civil War muskets had to be disabled, most of the men had already done this by removing the nipple from their weapon. For those whose nipple could not be removed, a tooth pick was inserted into it and broken off. The rest of the process mirrored that of what one would encounter at an airport before boarding a plane. After processing and before we got back on the bus, I along with a member of Company A was chosen to do live interviews for ABC News and NPR. Unfortunately, when we finally got to the interview area, other parade participants were being interviewed and were not finished before we were ordered to be escorted back to our group to board our bus that would take us to the staging area.

Up Pennsylvania Avenue

I recalled that four years prior that bus ride gave us a great view of the magnitude of the crowd that was in Washington, DC for the inauguration. That was not the case this year but we did go past the new Martin Luther King Monument which gave everyone on the bus an opportunity to reflect on the significance of the day. At the staging area, one Civil War reenactor from Philadelphia who did not get processed at the Pentagon tried to join the ranks. He was not with us one minute before security pounced and removed him from our ranks so he could not join us in the staging area tent. Activities inside the tent were more organized than four years prior, there was a big TV screen that allowed everyone to see the inauguration process. We were seated next to Company B, other African American Civil War reenactors from Washington, DC. It became obvious to many of us in the ranks that we all should be marching together but we were not the decision makers. There were groups galore inside the tent but we were advised to stay together and not roam alone.

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54th Mass Company A Marches in Inaugural Parade. Photos Courtesy of Bernice Bennett

After what seemed like hours, we finally went outside to take our position for the parade. Interestingly, the gentleman who could not join us in the tent found his way back to our ranks and was placed right beside me which made me a little nervous. When the procession began to move, I was impressed because four years prior it took hours before we moved. And then we stopped, the memory of standing for hours in the cold four years earlier came rushing back. After a series of starts and stops, we began to move along at a constant pace. The spectators along the parade route were much more abundant than four years prior. Every one hundred yards or so, an announcer would make known to the crowd what unit was approaching. About half way into the parade, the older gentlemen in the group began to waiver. The series of command for repositioning our weapons were getting pointless as every position became painful.

And there it was, the presidential reviewing stand. Being on the extreme left of the formation, the side closest to the president, I was forewarned that when the command eyes left was given I had to continue to look forward to maintain the decorum of the formation. Knowing this I had to get a good look at the Commander in Chief as we approached and before the command was given. As we passed the presidential enclosure, everyone in the formation, despite their age and physical condition seemed to disregard the pain that they were enduring. Once the formation passed the presidential enclosure, it was apparent that we all lost our swagger and stamina but there were still people along the route and we had to perform accordingly for an additional two hundred yards or so.

Finally, we got to the busses where we could break the formation. After receiving the order to proceed in a loose formation to the bus, our headcount revealed that two members did not make it to the end. Provisions for such an occurrence had already been made and the two men had been transported to the bus and were there before the rest of us got there. Later that night, I would decline the opportunity to hang out with some of the younger guys as they would again attempt to go to Ben’s Chili Bowl. I stayed in the house with the older group and we all ordered a pizza. When the younger group returned, they let me know that this time they were successful in getting into Ben’s Chili Bowl.

Tuesday, January 22, the day after the march, I awoke and checked the weather and discovered it was 20 degrees and only going to reach 23 degrees that day. I gave thanks that the inaugural parade occurred the day before when it was 25 degrees warmer. I was also thankful that I was going to put 516 miles of south between me and Washington, DC while the guys from Company A were going in the opposite direction into colder weather. Before I left, I had to again thank Company A for letting me join them for the second inaugural parade for first African American president of the United States. I vowed to them that I will prepare a place for them in Charleston, SC when they come during the week of July, 14 – 21, 2013 to participate in the 150th Anniversary of the Assault on Batter Wagner, the battle that was depicted in the movie Glory.

The institution of slavery suppressed our ancestors by denying them the opportunity to be educated. Any evidence of the enslaved being educated could meet with harsh punishment. One cumulative result is that African Americans have been playing catch up in recording our own history. To that end, a lot of African American history that should have been recorded has gone to the grave with some of our ancestors. I hereby thank my blog publisher for reminding me that I do have an audience and that some of the things that I do that I take for granted are worthy of being shared with that audience.

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Joseph McGill and Company A, 54th Massachusetts Reenactment Regiment March in Inaugural Parade

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#FFCC00fadetrue

Inaugural Parade

Immersing myself in matters of history is second nature. More specifically, matters of African American history are on my short list of things I enjoy engaging in the most. To that end, I often have to be reminded that some of those matters of history of which I indulge are much bigger than me therefore they should be shared with an audience that wishes to know more about African American history. Through this blog you have been reading about The Slave Dwelling Project one of my deep indulgence into the extant places where enslaved African American lived, so deep that I have spent a night in thirty eight of these dwellings in twelve states since 2010. My publisher alerted me that I was about to engage in something rare that current and future followers of the blog might also be interested.

My other delve into African American history is that for over 20 years, I have been a Civil War reenactor. My Civil War reenacting group is Company I, 54th Massachusetts Reenactment Regiment. The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was one of the first African American Civil War units raised in the north and was portrayed in the academy award winning movie Glory in 1989. Being one of few African American Civil War reenactors in the United States, we represent approximately 200,000 African Americans that served the Union Army and Navy during the American Civil War. It was this affiliation that got me an invitation to march in the presidential inaugural parade that occurred on the Martin Luther King holiday on January 21, 2013. I would march with Company A, my fellow Civil War reenactors from Boston, Massachusetts.

The opportunity to march in the parade was not unique for I had done the very same thing four years prior with the same group. That experience taught me to prepare better for the occasion. My new brogans that I ordered for the occasion had gotten within a few miles from my home before UPS shipped them back to the sender because they could not figure out my address. The time that I received them only gave me a week to start the breaking in process which required me to wear them to work at Magnolia Plantation one day. I shined my brass and had the buttons sewn on my Civil War uniform and the pants hemmed accordingly. From the sporting goods store, I purchased hand and toe warmers. While packing for the trip, I discovered that my thermal underwear was insufficient for what I was about to experience therefore I had to purchase more. I recalled in 2009 standing in the below freezing cold for two hours waiting for the parade to begin so this time I would arm myself with snacks aplenty.

When I arrived in Washington, DC at the designated place to stay late in the evening of Saturday, January 19, the gentlemen from Boston were already there. Our host, Frank Smith, President of the African American Civil War Museum found a row house in a nice neighborhood that we could rent for the occasion. To my surprise, it would not be necessary for me to spread my sleeping bag on the floor because an army unit provided cots for all the men and women staying in the house. The only challenge would be everyone sharing the one rest room that was in the house. To that end, ten minute time limits had to be established and I chose the first slot at 4:00 am. Upon seeing Company A, we picked up where we left off because more than half of the guys participated in the inaugural parade four years earlier. That night some of us attempted to go to the world famous Ben’s Chili Bowl but were in for a rude awakening when we saw the line of people who got there before us.

Sunday, January 20 was packed with activities. An early morning muster gave us an indication of how we would function as a group. Our formation brought from the neighborhood various onlookers, picture takers and inquirers. Breakfast was prepared by an Elk’s lodge located two doors from the house where we stayed. We then proceeded in a loose formation to the African American Civil War Monument, 1925 Vermont Avenue NW, where we drilled and interacted with spectators.

The entrance to the African American Civil War Museum, 1925 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC

After the drill session, we went across the street to the Civil War Museum where we listened to a rousing and informative lecture about African Americans in the Civil War given by the museum curator Hari Jones. We were then shuttled over to 18th Street and Columbia Road to participate in the Slavery to Freedom in Adams Morgan Walking Tour. One stop on the tour was the site of John Little Manor House. Mr. Little was a cattle farmer who owned slaves. The tour concluded at the African American and Quaker cemeteries at Walker Pierce Park. Several African American Civil War soldiers and sailors are buried there.

Enjoying chicken wings and french fries at the Elks lodge while watching the New England Patriots versus Baltimore Ravens football game

That night we all gathered at the Elk’s Lodge to watch the New England Patriots versus the Baltimore Ravens. It was a precarious situation for me because being so close to Baltimore, Maryland, I was hanging with guys from Boston so I governed my actions accordingly. French fries, chicken wings and beer made the gathering more memorable. Needless to say, the result of the game was not favorable for my colleagues from Boston.

Monday, January 21, Dr. Martin Luther King’s holiday, the day of the inauguration, we all mustered outside at 5:00 am for inspection. The bus that would take us to the Pentagon for processing would not arrive for another hour or so which gave us some time to relax. On the bus ride that seemed to have taken almost an hour, we finally arrived at the Pentagon where again we had to wait. Having been preprocessed by providing our social security numbers and a photograph at least two weeks prior, the physical processing went a lot more smoothly than 4 years prior.

Muster outside of the row house on the morning of the inaugural parade

Knowing that our functional Civil War muskets had to be disabled, most of the men had already done this by removing the nipple from their weapon. For those whose nipple could not be removed, a tooth pick was inserted into it and broken off. The rest of the process mirrored that of what one would encounter at an airport before boarding a plane. After processing and before we got back on the bus, I along with a member of Company A was chosen to do live interviews for ABC News and NPR. Unfortunately, when we finally got to the interview area, other parade participants were being interviewed and were not finished before we were ordered to be escorted back to our group to board our bus that would take us to the staging area.

Up Pennsylvania Avenue

I recalled that four years prior that bus ride gave us a great view of the magnitude of the crowd that was in Washington, DC for the inauguration. That was not the case this year but we did go past the new Martin Luther King Monument which gave everyone on the bus an opportunity to reflect on the significance of the day. At the staging area, one Civil War reenactor from Philadelphia who did not get processed at the Pentagon tried to join the ranks. He was not with us one minute before security pounced and removed him from our ranks so he could not join us in the staging area tent. Activities inside the tent were more organized than four years prior, there was a big TV screen that allowed everyone to see the inauguration process. We were seated next to Company B, other African American Civil War reenactors from Washington, DC. It became obvious to many of us in the ranks that we all should be marching together but we were not the decision makers. There were groups galore inside the tent but we were advised to stay together and not roam alone.

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54th Mass Company A Marches in Inaugural Parade. Photos Courtesy of Bernice Bennett

After what seemed like hours, we finally went outside to take our position for the parade. Interestingly, the gentleman who could not join us in the tent found his way back to our ranks and was placed right beside me which made me a little nervous. When the procession began to move, I was impressed because four years prior it took hours before we moved. And then we stopped, the memory of standing for hours in the cold four years earlier came rushing back. After a series of starts and stops, we began to move along at a constant pace. The spectators along the parade route were much more abundant than four years prior. Every one hundred yards or so, an announcer would make known to the crowd what unit was approaching. About half way into the parade, the older gentlemen in the group began to waiver. The series of command for repositioning our weapons were getting pointless as every position became painful.

And there it was, the presidential reviewing stand. Being on the extreme left of the formation, the side closest to the president, I was forewarned that when the command eyes left was given I had to continue to look forward to maintain the decorum of the formation. Knowing this I had to get a good look at the Commander in Chief as we approached and before the command was given. As we passed the presidential enclosure, everyone in the formation, despite their age and physical condition seemed to disregard the pain that they were enduring. Once the formation passed the presidential enclosure, it was apparent that we all lost our swagger and stamina but there were still people along the route and we had to perform accordingly for an additional two hundred yards or so.

Finally, we got to the busses where we could break the formation. After receiving the order to proceed in a loose formation to the bus, our headcount revealed that two members did not make it to the end. Provisions for such an occurrence had already been made and the two men had been transported to the bus and were there before the rest of us got there. Later that night, I would decline the opportunity to hang out with some of the younger guys as they would again attempt to go to Ben’s Chili Bowl. I stayed in the house with the older group and we all ordered a pizza. When the younger group returned, they let me know that this time they were successful in getting into Ben’s Chili Bowl.

Tuesday, January 22, the day after the march, I awoke and checked the weather and discovered it was 20 degrees and only going to reach 23 degrees that day. I gave thanks that the inaugural parade occurred the day before when it was 25 degrees warmer. I was also thankful that I was going to put 516 miles of south between me and Washington, DC while the guys from Company A were going in the opposite direction into colder weather. Before I left, I had to again thank Company A for letting me join them for the second inaugural parade for first African American president of the United States. I vowed to them that I will prepare a place for them in Charleston, SC when they come during the week of July, 14 – 21, 2013 to participate in the 150th Anniversary of the Assault on Batter Wagner, the battle that was depicted in the movie Glory.

The institution of slavery suppressed our ancestors by denying them the opportunity to be educated. Any evidence of the enslaved being educated could meet with harsh punishment. One cumulative result is that African Americans have been playing catch up in recording our own history. To that end, a lot of African American history that should have been recorded has gone to the grave with some of our ancestors. I hereby thank my blog publisher for reminding me that I do have an audience and that some of the things that I do that I take for granted are worthy of being shared with that audience.

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Join Lowcountry Africana at Magnolia Plantation Feb 9 for a Seminar on Tracing Reconstruction-Era Ancestors

Learn About the Records That Will Help You Trace African American Ancestors Back Beyond 1870
~And~ Receive Personal Genealogy Advice from a Panel of Experienced Lowcountry Researchers!

Please join us at Magnolia Plantation and Gardens on Saturday, February 9 for the seminar "Breaking Through the 1870 Brick Wall - Tracing Reconstruction-Era Ancestors."

After the seminar, a panel of experienced Lowcountry researchers will be on hand to provide one-on-one genealogy advice. Whether you are just beginning your research or need advice to overcome brick walls, bring your research questions and join us!

Seminar Schedule

10:00 am - 11:00 am: Ramona La Roche "Finding Ancestors in Radical Republican Times"

11:00 am - 12:00 pm: Toni Carrier "Finding Your Ancestors in Freedmen's Bureau Records"

12:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Receive One-On-One Genealogy Advice from a Panel of Experienced Lowcountry Researchers!

Meet the Panelists

Ramona La Roche

Ramona La Roche is Vice President of the Charleston branch of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. She formerly served as Program Coordinator for the Jean Sampson Scott New York City chapter of the Afro American Historical and Genealogical Society from 1992 to 1999. She conducts genealogical workshops and research services, cultural arts training, related tours and event planning. She is a past participant and recipient of SC Arts Commission Institute of Community Scholars’ individual grant program.

Her collaborative work encompasses a wide variety of populations, such as youth services, educational institutions, and community development entities.

Her contracts include professional development for such entities as Mecklenburg County school K-12 art teachers at the Harvey B. Gannt Center in Charlotte, NC (funders Art & Science Council); conference presentations at the University of Texas at Austin and SC Art Educators Association annual meetings; Brookgreen Gardens, Murrells Inlet; Dreamkeepers Center, and First Steps, Georgetown, SC.

La Roche’s graduate work included her Healing Arts studies at Antioch University in San Francisco. She earned her professional degrees in Divergent Learning from Columbia College in South Carolina, a BFA degree, and an Art Therapy Certificate from the School of Visual Arts in New York City. She also holds state licensure and National Certification in Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork.

Her published literary works include – “A Day Trip to Georgetown”, College of Charleston Avery Research Center’s Charleston African American Visitors Guide, (2006); "Gullah Connections: Crossing Over, Passing, the Links Between The Worlds", exploring Gullah & Yoruba Funerary practices, in Orisa: Yoruba God & Spiritual Identity in Africa and the Diaspora, Toyin Falola and Ann Genova, editors, (2005); and Black America Series: Georgetown County, SC (2000).

A teaching artist, La Roche’s visual and literary art expresses the inner strength of African American women which emanates from the depth and most deepest core of the Earth. She states, “We stand on shoulders and experiences of our fore mothers and fore fathers. It is this connection to this internal core, we experience that which fuels our ability to carry and emanate the inner Light.

Contact:

Ramona La Roche, M. Ed.

Divergent Learning Specialist

www.gullahgal.com/ http://xeeme.com/RamonaLaRoche

ramonalaroche@gmail.com

Fallon Green

Fallon N. Green is a first time author and is owner and operator of African American Genealogy with Fallon Green a South Carolina-based, family run, small press genealogical publishing company that specializes in producing study companions and reference tools geared towards African American family history researchers.

Fallon Green has over ten years experience doing Family History Research and is the online administrator of the The Gullah Diaspora Project, a beginning site for those requesting help searching Gullah Genealogies. This is a website dedicated to uniting all Gullah Descendants Worldwide by providing free guidance on family history research as well as by transcribing and indexing state and local records that are specific to the History of the Sea Islands and the cultural preservation of the American Story of the Gullah.

She is the Founding Member of the 2nd SC Chapter of the Sons and Daughters of the United States Colored Troops and is the online administrator of its flagship initiative, the previously mentioned, soon to be launched Gullah Diaspora Project 2012. Fallon Green currently works for the Foundation for the National Archives in Downtown Washington, DC and is an active member of several civic, research and volunteer groups within the city.

She is a Fourth Generation Descendant of Civil War Soldier Private Shedrick Manego, Company E of the 34th Regiment of the United States Colored Troops. Who fought in and participated in such engagements as The Battle of Honey Hill, The Combahee Ferry Raid and the Battle of Olustee. A Beaufort, SC contemporary of Robert Smalls, Shedrick Manigo himself would go on to "Preach the Pulpit" following the Civil War and would build the church that still stands today and serves his home community, Second Gethsemane Baptist Church.

Paul Garbarini

Paul Garbarini has been immersed on Charleston history since his arrival in 1997.

A strong interest in Southern decorative arts lead him to be named the first South Carolina Professional Associate in Furniture for the American Institute for Conservation.

Garbarini became a licensed Charleston Tour Guide in 2009 and opened Uniquely Charleston Tours. His business is built around designing custom tours, researching Charleston’s deep documentary treasures, and finding genealogical links in the Lowcountry.

Toni Carrier

Toni Carrier is the Founding Director of Lowcountry Africana and the USF Africana Heritage Project. She holds a Master’s degree in Applied Anthropology from the University of South Florida and has been researching in Lowcountry records for the past 12 years.

Past projects include research for the PBS series African American Lives 2, genealogy research on Michelle Obama's family tree on behalf of Obama for America, and research on enslaved families on Ball family plantations in SC for the Priscilla's Homecoming reunion in 2005.

For the past 5 years, she and the Lowcountry Africana crew have been conducting research on behalf of Magnolia Plantation and Gardens and Drayton Hall, to rebuild the lineages of enslaved families in SC, GA and FL. Lowcountry Africana, sponsored by the Magnolia Plantation Foundation of Charleston, SC, was awarded Drayton Hall’s Wood Family Fellowship and Toni Carrier and Lowcountry Africana Co-Director Robin Foster were awarded the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Charisse R. Cecil Internship for 2012, to extend the Drayton family research into postbellum times. Together, the studies on behalf of Magnolia Plantation and Gardens and Drayton Hall will cover the grand sweep of African American history on Drayton family plantations from Colonial times to the present.

Toni's special research interest is in finding and digitizing records to assist African American family history researchers in tracing ancestors back before the 1870 US Census.

Grab and Share the Event Flyer!

Shares on social media and in print are most welcome and much appreciated! Please share with friends and we hope to see you there on February 9!
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"The Day We Celebrate:" Emancipation Day in Charleston, Then and Now

On December 23, 1865 the South Carolina Leader, an African American newspaper based in Charleston, SC posted the following announcement [1]:

Barbecue -- January first, Emancipation Day, will be celebrated by a procession of the different organizations of the city. A barbecue will be held at some convenient locality during the day. July 4th is the anniversary of our national independence. January 1st is the anniversary of our national freedom. It is the day we celebrate.

Watch Night and the Emancipation Proclamation

The anticipated celebration marked the third anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, issued by president Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. After the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, Lincoln warned that if states within the Confederacy did not rejoin the Union, he would issue a decree on January 1, 1863 making slaves in rebellious states forever free.

On December 30, 1862, in churches throughout the Confederate states, enslaved congregations gathered for Watch Night in anticipation of Lincoln's decree. Together they prayed the old year out and the new year in with fervent hope of the promised emancipation. On January 1, 1863 Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared slaves in the Confederate states forever free.

The Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately free slaves in the Confederacy, as it was unenforceable in those states, but the decree effectively shifted the focus of the Civil War from a war to preserve the Union to a war to end slavery in the United States [2].

Image: "Watch Meeting, Dec. 31, 1862--Waiting for the Hour," Library of Congress Digital Print LC-DIG-ppmsca-10980. No Known Restrictions on Publication.

Charleston's First Emancipation Day Celebration

Charleston's first Emancipation Day celebration on January 1, 1866 included a parade, barbecue and ceremony with addresses by Union military officers and leaders of the Charleston African American community. The celebration, attended by thousands of the city's residents, was organized by a committee composed of Charleston's African American community leaders.

Conditions for the parade and barbecue were not ideal. Heavy rains in the days before had left the streets and fairground muddy and wet, and the day was overcast, but that did not dampen the spirits of those present. The procession began at the Battery and made its way up Meeting, Hazel and King streets, ending at the city's Race Course.

Troops from the 33rd United States Colored Troops provided the escort followed by organizations including the Union League, Good Fellows Elect, Young Men's Brotherly Association, Planters and Mechanics Benevolent Society, the Ashley, Niagara and Comet Fire companies, Home Guard Company B and the Drum Corps of the 33rd United States Colored Troops.

The South Carolina Leader described the scene:

The throng of people followed the procession until they came to the place of the barbecue. There must have been an area of some ten acres of ground covered by the densely crowded mass of humanity. The scene, as viewed from the speakers' stand, was grand and sublime. As far as the eye could reach was one vast living, moving panorama.

For the next four hours, celebrants were regaled with speeches given by military and community leaders [3].

Charleston's Emancipation Day celebration became a tradition, one that continues to the present day.

Jubilee Project: Emancipation Day Celebration, 2013

This year, the College of Charleston's Jubilee Project, a collaborative academic and cultural project of the Carolina Lowcountry and Atlantic World (CLAW) program at the College of Charleston, will combine traditional Emancipation Day celebrations with special one-time events in celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation.

Today, December 31, 2012, the City of Charleston's New Year’s Eve celebration will be followed by “Watch Night” services all around Charleston. On the stroke of midnight churches with bells will ring them out loud and clear to celebrate the Emancipation Proclamation.

Tomorrow, Jan 1, 2013, the annual Emancipation Day parade will be followed by a special church service in Morris Brown AME Church at 13 Morris Street, Charleston, SC.

For more information on today and tomorrow's Jubilee Project events, please visit the Jubilee Project website at http://jubileeprojectsc.wordpress.com/.

References Cited

[1] "Barbecue." The South Carolina Leader, 23 Dec 1865, Page 2. Chronicling America, database online at Library of Congress, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025783/1865-12-23/ed-1/seq-2/, accessed 30 Dec 2012.

[2] "Watch Night Tradition Reaches 150th Year." Washington Times, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/dec/30/watch-night-tradition-reaches-150th-year/, accessed 30 Dec 2012.

[3] "The Day We Celebrate: Grand Jubilee. Procession and Barbecue." The South Carolina Leader, Saturday, 6 Jan 1866. Chronicling America, database online at Library of Congress, http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025783/1866-01-06/ed-1/seq-3.pdf, accessed 30 Dec 2012.

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Marriage and Divorce Records for Charleston, Strawberry Ferry, Johns Island, and Camden, 1865-1866

Source: United States, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. Marriage and Divorce Records for Charleston, Strawberry Ferry, Johns Island, and Camden, 1865-1866. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Series Number .F601301, Record Group Number 601300.

Notation at top of journal: "Marriage records from an old book used by Rev. Mansfield French, Chaplain in U.S. Army, stationed at Beaufort, South Carolina from March 1862 as Chaplain of Hospital Base No. 1, U.S. Army. He was engaged in Freedmens Bureau work for the Government and held his commission as Chaplain until about February 1868, working in Negro education & relief work at Beaufort and at Charleston, SC."

Groom: Patrick Williams

From What Place: Wadmalaw Island SC

to

Bride: Diana Brown

Date: March 21, 1866

From What Place: Wadmalaw Island SC

Rev. M. French

At What Place Married: Charleston SC

Groom: Lewis Fenick

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Leah Fenick

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Joseph Motor

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Katherine Simmons

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: George Harris

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Nancy Middleton

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Sampy Lovely

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Tenah Wright

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Charles Harris

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Mary Ann Brown

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Snow Aiken

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Lucy Rady

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Joshua Garrett

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Rose Morton

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Ishmael Steward

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Bina Aiken

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

March 20, 1866

By Rev. Thos J. Evans

At What Place Married: Strawberry Ferry SC

Groom: Handiff Ford

From What Place: Strawberry Ferry SC

to

Bride: Dappy Wally

From What Place: Johns Island SC

December 10, 1865

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Toby Heyward

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Affy Wally

From What Place: Johns Island SC

December 10, 1865

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Peter Connor

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: L. Whaley

From What Place: Johns Island SC

December 21, 1865

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Henry Muck

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: L. Whaley

From What Place: Johns Island SC

December 21, 1865

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Kit Drayton

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Phillis Whaley

From What Place: Johns Island SC

January 10, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Jack Huggins

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Mary Cambell

From What Place: Johns Island SC

January 12, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Scipio Brown

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: B. Whaley

From What Place: Johns Island SC

February 1, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Adam Roberts

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Jane Townsend

From What Place: Johns Island SC

February 1, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Mosy Jenkins

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Jane Townsend

From What Place: Johns Island SC

March 1, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Joseph Doctor

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Bina Jenkins

From What Place: Johns Island SC

March 10, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Paul Drayton

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Sarah Townsend

From What Place: Johns Island SC

March 11, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Charley Bryant

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Sarah West

From What Place: Johns Island SC

March 11, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: John Simmons

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Cath Jenkins

From What Place: Johns Island SC

January 15, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Adam Pinckney

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Jane Francis

From What Place: Johns Island SC

January 15, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Joe Chisolm

From What Place:Johns Island SC

to

Bride: Betsie Bennett

From What Place: Johns Island SC

February 4, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Henry Redick

From What Place:35th USCT

to

Bride: Margaret Moses

From What Place: Charleston SC

April 24, 1866

By Rev. John Graham

At What Place Married: Johns Island SC

Groom: Riley Moore

From What Place:35th USCT

to

Bride: Emma Carada (?)

From What Place: Charleston SC

April 24, 1866

By Rev. M. French

At What Place Married: Charleston SC

Groom: Orman Smith

From What Place:35th USCT

to

Bride: Amy Chism

From What Place: Charleston SC

April 24, 1866

By Rev. M. French

At What Place Married: Charleston SC

Groom: Caesar Collins

From What Place:35th USCT

to

Bride: Fanny Fenix

From What Place: Charleston SC

April 24, 1866

By Rev. M. French

At What Place Married: Charleston SC

Groom: Bartley Millard

From What Place:35th USCT

to

Bride: Rina Reed

From What Place: Camden SC

March 29, 1866

By Rev. M. French

Groom: Zacharia Keys

From What Place:NC, 35th USCT

to

Bride: Eliza Richardson

From What Place: Camden SC

March 29, 1866

By Rev. M. French

Groom: Edmund Gregory

From What Place:New Bern, NC, 35th USCT

to

Bride: Elizabeth Ford

From What Place: Charleston SC

March 29, 1866

By Rev. M. French

Groom: John Gaskell

From What Place: 35th USCT

to

Bride: Elizabeth Prichard

From What Place: Charleston SC

March 29, 1866

By Rev. M. French

Groom: Griffin Benson

From What Place: 35th USCT

to

Bride: Jane Jenkins

From What Place: Charleston SC

March 29, 1866

By Rev. M. French

Divorces

John Young

and

Nancy Young

Charleston, SC

April 5, 1866

Samuel Wigfall

Charleston, SC

and

Annie Wigfall

Mt. Pleasant, SC

April 5, 1866

John Morrison

Charleston, SC

and

Finnie Morrison

Charleston, SC

April 17, 1866